All Accounting & Auditing Articles

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accounting articles

Comparability refers to the ability to make relevant comparisons between two or more companies in the same industry at a point in time. Consistency refers to the ability to make relevant comparisons within the same company over a period of time. To accountants, the two most important characteristics of useful information are relevance and reliability. Information is relevant to the extent that it can potentially alter a decision. Relevant information helps improve predictions of future events, confirms the outcome of a previous prediction, and should be available before a decision is made.

Forty-two percent of public companies are either still assessing the impact of the new lease accounting rules or have not even gotten that far, finds PwC. The allowance method has the advantage of matching expected bad debts to revenues in the period when the revenues are recognized, even if you don’t know exactly which accounts receivable will not be collectible.


A general interest accounting journal that publishes original research in all areas of accounting that utilizes tools from basic disciplines such as economics, statistics, psychology, and sociology. The accounting cycle records and analyzes accounting events related to a company’s activities. The appearance of corporations in the United States and the creation of the railroad were the catalysts that transformed bookkeeping into the practice of accounting. Pacioli, who is commonly known as “the father of accounting,” published a textbook called “Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Proportionalita” in 1494, which showed the benefits of a double-entry system for bookkeeping. As currencies became available and tradesmen and merchants began to build material wealth, bookkeeping evolved.

accounting articles

As technology, legislation and best practices change, a professional accountant must remain up to date. To exercise sound judgment, an accountant must stay abreast of developments that could affect a decision’s outcome. Ethical codes are the fundamental principles that accounting professionals choose to abide by to enhance their profession, maintain public trust, and demonstrate honesty and fairness. People who join organizations and secure the credentials to present themselves to the public as CPAs or IIAs strive to protect the reputation of the profession.

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One of them is residual income, which we will discuss in this article. As we look ahead to what is sure to be a busy 2019, we rounded up the top accounting articles of 2018. From new lease accounting rules to the dark side of accounting expertise, from defining free cash flow to the new revenue recognition standard, here are CFO editors’ picks for the 11 best accounting articles of 2018. CFI has created hundreds of guides and resources to help you learn accounting. These articles are meant to be used as self-study, so you can read and learn at your own pace. In the guides, you’ll see examples and step-by-step instructions on the most important and common accounting principles and concepts required to be a world-class financial analyst.

  • Ledgers from these times read like narratives, with dates and descriptions of trades made or terms for services rendered.
  • Once you get enough customers and plan effectively, you can build the cycle of positive cash flow.
  • Our accounting experts explain definitions, formulas, examples, practical expert advice, visuals and guidance that will help you master project accounting.
  • In addition to being relevant and reliable, accounting information should be comparable and consistent.
  • Use the checkbox next to each article title to select articles for download.
  • William Seward Burroughs’ adding machine, created in 1887 and perfected for commercial sale in the 1890s, helped early accountants calculate receipts and quickly reconcile their books.
  • When someone veers too far from ethical standards, their trustworthiness and judgment come into question.

In recent years, financial institutions have doubled down on their compliance-driven investments in technology . Twenty years ago, firms primarily hired financial experts and increased spending on auditing when they were impacted by a regulatory change to make sure that they were in compliance with rules such as Sarbanes-Oxley. Specifically, innovations like artificial intelligence, cryptocurrencies, and regulatory technology (“regtech”) are changing the future of accounting. At the same time, practitioners are increasingly being asked to price intangibles such as a company’s brand, technology, human capital, and culture.

But both they and the companies they acquire need to understand just how big a difference that decision can make to the value shareholders will get from a deal. CPA firms can benefit significantly from outsourcing their bookkeeping services. Read below to learn more about the benefits of outsourced bookkeeping services. Accounting has always been a promising field for career-builders. Opportunities are brimming due to the stable and increasing demand for accounting services. Accountancy also introduces professionals to globally recognized accounting related certifications that will help in pursuing career advancements.

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A bad debt may also occur when a customer misrepresents itself in obtaining a sale on credit, and has no intent of ever paying the seller. The first situation is caused by bad internal processes or changes in the ability of a customer to pay. The second situation is caused by a customer intentionally engaging in fraud. Accounting Today is a leading provider of online business news for the accounting community, offering breaking news, in-depth features, and a host of resources and services. Survey data from more than 400 senior investment professionals provides insights into why and how investors use environmental, social, and governance information as well as the challenges in using this information.

accounting articles

Similar guidelines also apply to accounting professionals who supervise others. These accountants must ensure that the subordinates receive proper training and guidance as they carry out their responsibilities.

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Make the controller responsible for accounting and the CFO for financing — and have them report separately to the CEO, an ex-finance executive advises. A large German manufacturer of ball bearings and precision machinery experiences severe financial difficulty brought on by poor management practices,… State Street Corp. reports a 13% gain in EPS in 2008 amidst a global financial crisis.

It is the language of business and, by extension, of all things financial. Our senses collect information from our surroundings that our brains then interpret; accountants translate the complexities of finance into information that the public can understand.

  • Reports the results of accounting research and explaining and illustrating related research methodology; published for members of the American Accounting Association.
  • Organizations use various performance measures to motivate managers and other employees to invest their effort and skills into decision-making and work in general.
  • Over the past couple of months I have talked to several entrepreneurs who has said “business is good, I’m getting the contracts but now I have to make sure I have the cash to fund these projects”.
  • ERP/Back Office Manage all the assets and resources of a company.
  • This was changed to a uniform system in 1883 because it was necessary to have goods delivered and unloaded at certain stations at predictable times.

The codes of conduct from the Association of Certified Public Accountants , the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants and the Institute of Internal Auditors share several commonalities. In the broker-dealer setting, for example, “regulators want to see that you have enough capital and that you’re properly segregating customer and firm assets,” Sutherland said. “I think as technology develops, I can see AI changing quite significantly the way in which record-keeping, the bookkeeping part of accounting, is done,” he said. Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work.

How To Streamline Your Accounts Payable Processes

In this article, we will follow accounting from its roots in ancient times to its modern equivalent. “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and five minutes to ruin it. If you think about that, you’ll do things differently.” – Warren Buffet. Reputation is very important for organizations because it leads to a sustained competitive advantage by making the organization more attractive to its stakeholders (e.g., customers, employees, suppliers, business partners). In this article, we will discuss costs that are reported as part of cost of quality reporting.

accounting articles

For goods and people to reach their destinations, you need distribution networks, shipping schedules, fare collection, competitive rates, and some way to evaluate whether all of this is being done in the most efficient way possible. Enter accounting with its cost estimates, financial statements, operating ratios, production reports, and a multitude of other metrics to give businesses the data that they needed to make informed decisions. The revenue recognition principle dictates the process and timing by which revenue is recorded and recognized as an item in a company’s financial statements. Theoretically, there are multiple points in time at which revenue could be recognized by companies.

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Get outsourced tax preparation services to save expenses and increase your profit. People have different takes on this and the answer depends upon what you want in life, really. Now that would be a totally different topic so let’s not go into that.

Bookkeepers most likely emerged while society was still using the barter system to trade (before 2000 B.C.) rather than a cash-and-commerce economy. Ledgers from these times read like narratives, with dates and descriptions of trades made or terms for services rendered. Andy Smith is a Certified Financial Planner (CFP®), licensed realtor and educator with over 35 years of diverse financial management experience. He is an expert on personal finance, corporate finance and real estate and has assisted thousands of clients in meeting their financial goals over his career. Two prominent audit committee chairs speak to the results of a Deloitte Center for Board Effectiveness and Center for Audit Quality report on audit committee practices and the major issues audit committees face today.

Four firms have taken supremacy in providing accounting and auditing services to the largest companies worldwide. These firms provide an extensive range of accounting and auditing services including external audit, taxation, business consultancy, and risk assessment and control. They also provide massive employment and career development opportunities to accountants and auditors around the world.

Articles, interviews, profiles, legislation and news of note on all aspects of accounting for members of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Reports the results of accounting research and explaining and illustrating related research methodology; published for members of the American Accounting Association. Provides fast, convenient access to a multitude of outstanding sources—from The New York Times Business Section and The Wall Street Journal to magazines and scholarly journals. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation.

A U.S. company must decide how to translate its German subsidiary’s DM financial statements into U.S. dollars for public and internal reporting purposes…. This paper seeks to understand and provide evidence on the characteristics of emerging accounting standards for sustainability information. Given that a large number of institutional investors seek sustainability data and have committed to using it, it is increasingly important to develop a robust accounting infrastructure for the reporting of such information. Employment impact-weighted accounting statements quantify the positive and negative effects of firm practices for employees and the broader labor community.

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